Flags of Antarctica

Many flags have flown over Antarctica in the 200 years since it was first sited. Historically and currently, national flags are the most common flags on the continent. While they were previously used for territorial claims, since the adoption of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959 most national flags are used to signal the affiliation of a particular station or vessel. This page documents the other flags associated with the continent, though it is by no means exhaustive. If you have additions or corrections, please contact us.

Continental Flags

The Emblem of the Antarctic Treaty

Antarctic Treaty System emblem, a flag of Antarctica

In 2002, the Antarctic Treaty Committee Meeting adopted an emblem to “provide a clear identity to the work of the ATCM and its Secretariat." which is sometimes used as a flag. International law recognizes the Antarctic Treaty System’s authority over the continent, meaning that it is the only flag to enjoy “official” status. As stated in the decision to adopt it, the emblem represents the treaty, not the continent. The decision also specifies that it may be used only by the ATCM and its Secretariat, or those operating with their authority.

 

Other Antarctic Flag Proposals

Several other flags have been proposed as a broader symbol of the continent and the people connected to it. None of these flags have any form of official status, and none are currently in common use on the continent. Click the images to view details and source links.

Whitney Smith Design
Whitney Smith Design

This flag design was proposed in 1978 by flag scholar Whitney Smith. The letter A stands for Antarctica while the disk below it represents the part of the globe below the Antarctic circle. Smith chose orange for its visibility.

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Cooper and Tucker Design
Cooper and Tucker Design

After seeing Smith's proposal, Joanne Cooper and Stefan Tucker sought to improve the design. They used orange, like Smith, but added a compass rose, a penguin, and an outline of the continent.

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Olivier Leroi Design
Olivier Leroi Design

Plastics artist Olivier Leroi was inspired by the colors of the emperor penguin. The vertical bands of the flag are sized in proportion to the distribution of color on the penguin.

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Whitney Smith Design
Whitney Smith Design

This flag design was proposed in 1978 by flag scholar Whitney Smith. The letter A stands for Antarctica while the disk below it represents the part of the globe below the Antarctic circle. Smith chose orange for its visibility.

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Territorial Flags

Seven countries have made eight claims to parts of Antarctica. Of those claims, four have flags officially adopted by their respective national governments. The remainder use the national flag as the symbol of their claimed territory. Click the images to view details and source links.

 
Flag of the British Antarctic Territory
Flag of the British Antarctic Territory

The official flag of the British territory claim on Antarctica between 20°W and 80°W. Vector image by Masur.

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Flag of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Flag of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands

This is the flag of the French Antarctic claim of Adélie Land as well as four groups of islands in the Indian Ocean. The emblem, made from the initials of Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises, represents an anchor.

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Flag of the Magallanes Region
Flag of the Magallanes Region

Like Argentina's flag, the flag of the Chilean Antarctic region is the flag of its southernmost province which includes the country's claimed Antarctic territory.

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Flag of the British Antarctic Territory
Flag of the British Antarctic Territory

The official flag of the British territory claim on Antarctica between 20°W and 80°W. Vector image by Masur.

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Historic Flags

Several expeditions have flown their own flags during their time on the continent. These flags were always accompanied by the flag of the expedition's country of origin. Click the images to view details and source links.

 

Expedition Flags

Scottish National Antarctic Expedition Flag
Scottish National Antarctic Expedition Flag

The flag of the 1902-1904 Scottish National Antarctic Expedition features the Scottish saltire with the initials of the expedition. Jessie Bruce made this for her husband, expedition leader William Bruce, to take on his journey south.

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Japanese Antarctic Expedition Flag
Japanese Antarctic Expedition Flag

This is one of two variants of a flag used by the Japanese Antarctic Expedition 1910-1912. It was also used as a flag of Yamato Yukihara, an area of Antarctica claimed by expedition leader Lieutenant Shirase Nobu. The claim was never formally recognized, even by the Japanese government.

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Transglobe Expedition Flag (1979-1982)
Transglobe Expedition Flag (1979-1982)

This flag was designed by Virginia (Ginny) Fiennes, wife of explorer Sir Ranulph Fiennes. The Transglobe Expedition was an uninterrupted circumnavigation of the world via the North and South Poles. (Image courtesy of the Transglobe Expedition Trust.)

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Scottish National Antarctic Expedition Flag
Scottish National Antarctic Expedition Flag

The flag of the 1902-1904 Scottish National Antarctic Expedition features the Scottish saltire with the initials of the expedition. Jessie Bruce made this for her husband, expedition leader William Bruce, to take on his journey south.

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Sledge Flags

Sledge flags were a relatively short-lived custom of British polar explorers first used in 1850 on an Arctic expedition to find Sir John Franklin's lost expeditionIn the style of naval ships (the expedition was mounted by the Royal Navy and crewed by seamen), each sledge was given a flag, as well as a name and motto. This tradition carried on through the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. There are several surviving versions of flags from Scott and Shackleton's expeditions. Most were pennants, with a few notable exceptions such as Shackleton's rectangular flag.

Sources and further reading:

Sledge-Flags: Their Origin and Development- H.G. Carr

Chivalry at the Poles: British Sledge Flags-Barbara Tomlinson

United Kingdom:Sledge Flags-Flags of the World

Illustrations of the crew's sledge flags as they appeared in the South Polar Times,  a magazine created by the members of Scott's expeditions.

Marker Flags

Flags are used to mark trails, depots, and other sites around Antarctica. These flags are usually solid colors, often with reflective patches for maximum visibility. The meaning of a particular color of flag varies across time and location, but they most often communicate a level of safety. In the US Antarctic Program sites, for example, red and green flags both mark paths that are safe to traverse while black flags mark dangerous obstacles such as ice crevasses. 

 

Micronational Flags

 

Because of the large unclaimed territory in Antarctica, dozens of people have attempted to claim sovereignty in the form of micronations. These claims are explicitly forbidden in the Antarctic Treaty and are not recognized by any world government or major international organization. They exist almost exclusively online, although some have their own royal titles, currencies, and passports. Almost all have their own flag.

Source and further reading: Micronationalism in Antarctica

AMU.jpg

The flag of the Antarctic Micronational Union, like Graham Bartram's design, appears to be UN-inspired.

Image Source

Acknowledgements

The following were instrumental in securing much of the information on this page: